ON-SITE ANALYSIS; CLOISONNE ENAMELS; 19TH CENTURIES
The focus of this paper is on analysis, comparison and research on the colorful lowtemperature, lead-containing overglazes on glazed porcelain body and on the enamel glazes on the metal body of the Qing Dynasty by adopting several analytical methods. Analysis and tests on the element, boron in overglaze on glazed porcelain body and enamel glaze on metal body, were performed using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and the results showed that Cloisonn enamel, painted enamel and Falangcai samples contained boron, while Famille Rose (Fencai) samples did not contain boron. Meanwhile, such analysis methods as laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXRF), Micro-Raman, stereomicroscope and Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were used to test and observe the element composition, crystal composition and microstructure of the samples. The results illustrated that matrix glaze of Cloisonn enamel, painted enamel and Falangcai was the same. The yellow glaze was a lead-alkali glass and other color glazes were boron-lead-alkali glass, while all color glazes of Famille Rose were lead-alkali glass. Colorful low-temperature overglaze on glazed porcelain body and enamel glaze on metal body had a common practice and technology in the use of opacifiers and colorants. Compared to painted enamel, the painting technique of Famille Rose was more complicated, and effect was apparently praised as being superior.